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Describe the sampling strategy Describe the intervention if applicable Identify the main study variables Describe data collection instruments and procedures Outline analysis methods Report on data collection and recruitment response rates, etc.
Describe participants demographic, clinical condition, etc. Present key findings with respect to the Research papers data structure research question Present secondary findings secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.
Discussion State the main findings of the study Discuss the main results with reference to previous research Discuss policy and practice implications of the results Analyse the strengths and limitations of the study Offer perspectives for future work View Large The Methods section should provide the readers with sufficient detail about the study methods to be able to reproduce the study if so desired.
Thus, this section should be specific, concrete, technical, and fairly detailed. The study setting, the sampling strategy used, instruments, data collection methods, and analysis strategies should be described. In the case of qualitative research studies, it is also useful to tell the reader which research tradition the study utilizes and to link the choice of methodological strategies with the research goals [ 3 ].
The Results section is typically fairly straightforward and factual. All results that relate to the research question should be given in detail, including simple counts and percentages.
Resist the temptation to demonstrate analytic ability and the richness of the dataset by providing numerous tables of non-essential results. The Discussion section allows the most freedom.
This is why the Discussion is the most difficult to write, and is often the weakest part of a paper. Structured Discussion sections have been proposed by some journal editors [ 4 ]. While strict adherence to such rules may not be necessary, following a plan such as that proposed in Table 1 may help the novice writer stay on track.
References should be used wisely. Key assertions should be referenced, as well as the methods and instruments used. However, unless the paper is a comprehensive review of a topic, there is no need to be exhaustive.
Also, references to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature technical reportsor to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided. The basics Having the structure of the paper in place is a good start.
However, there are many details that have to be attended to while writing. Another concerns non-native writers of English: A paper usually goes through several drafts before it is submitted. When revising a paper, it is useful to keep an eye out for the most common mistakes Table 2. If you avoid all those, your paper should be in good shape.
Table 2 Common mistakes seen in manuscripts submitted to this journal The research question is not specified The stated aim of the paper is tautological e.Advice on Statistics Research Paper: Format for Writing the Paper. Perhaps you like the paper-writing phase of research; maybe you dread it.
Science topics are interesting to write and easy to research because there are so many current and reputable journals online. Start by browsing through the topic questions below, then look at some of the linked articles or continue your search online with the links provided.
This section outline how to lay out the parts of a research paper, As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper, both approaches are acceptable and it is a matter of preference.
and ties it in with the previous research. Some research papers require a recommendations section, postulating the further.
LMGene takes objects of class exprSet, which is the standard data structure of the Biobase package. Hence, if data which is exprSet class is ready, the user can jump to further steps, like diagnostic plotting or g-log transformation.
Otherwise, the user needs to generate new exprSet class data. A huge amount of effort is spent cleaning data to get it ready for analysis, but there has been little research on how to make data cleaning as easy and effective as possible. Research papers/Data structures.