Generations of Computer Jan. Minor Tweaks were done for keywords. The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. A generation refers to the state of improvement in the product development process.
The Victorian Internet The concept of data communication — transmitting data between two different places through an electromagnetic medium such as radio or an electric wire — pre-dates the introduction of the first computers.
Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Semaphore linestelegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication. The Telegraph in the late 19th century was the first fully digital communication system.
Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude ShannonHarry Nyquistand Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century. Early computers had a central processing unit and remote terminals.
As the technology evolved, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances for terminals or with higher speed for interconnection of local devices that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. These technologies made it possible to exchange data such as files between remote computers.
However, the point-to-point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems; a physical link was necessary.
The technology was also considered unsafe for strategic and military use because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an enemy attack. Development of wide area networking With limited exceptions, the earliest computers were connected directly to terminals used by individual users, typically in the same building or site.
Such networks became known as local area networks LANs.
Networking beyond this scope, known as wide area networks WANsemerged during the s and became established during the s. Licklider's identified need for inter-networking would become obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused.
For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands.
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So if I was talking online with someone at S. I said, oh man, it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.
That idea is the ARPAnet. Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in for two years. Packet switching The issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logical network was the first of many problems.
Early networks used message switched systems that required rigid routing structures prone to single point of failure.
Kleinrock subsequently developed the mathematical theory behind the performance of this technology building on his earlier work on queueing theory. It provides better bandwidth utilization and response times than the traditional circuit-switching technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limited interconnection links.
NPL network Following discussions with J. Licklider, Donald Davies became interested in data communications for computer networks. The following year, he described the use of an "Interface computer" to act as a router. He intended to realize Licklider's ideas of an interconnected networking system.
We typed the O, and we asked, "Do you see the O. Yet a revolution had begun" Stamp of Azerbaijan, Bythe number of hosts had grown towith a new host being added approximately every twenty days.
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