Survey of rebellions, revolutionary movements, and social revolutions in the twentieth century, including Guatemalan, Cuban, Mexican, Chilean, and Nicaraguan cases. Meets International Perspectives Requirement. Sophomore classification Exploration, colonization, and development of political, economic, religious, and cultural institutions of North American colonies before Topics also include social history, emergence of African-American slavery, relations with American Indians.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message "Liberalism" in the context of religious liberalism conveys the sense of classical liberalism as it developed in the Enlightenment erawhich forms the starting point of Liberal internationalism essay religious and political liberalism; but religious liberalism does not necessarily coincide with all meanings of "liberalism" in political philosophy.
For example, an empirical attempt to show a link between religious liberalism and political liberalism proved inconclusive in a study in Illinois. It is more sharply contrasted with fundamentalism, and signifies a far deeper meaning than modernism.
Fundamentalism describes a relatively uncritical attitude. In it custom, traditionalism, and authoritarianism are dominant. They crave a sense of deeper meaning and direction for their life.
Religious liberalism, not as a cult but as an attitude and method, turns to the living realities in the actual tasks of building more significant individual and collective human life. Religious traditionalists, who reject the idea that tenets of modernity should have any impact on religious tradition, challenge the concept of religious liberalism.
Secularists, who reject the idea that implementation of rationalistic or critical thought leaves any room for religion altogether, likewise dispute religious liberalism. It has become mostly mainstream within the major Christian denominations in the Western worldbut is opposed by a movement of Christian fundamentalism which developed in response to these trends, and also contrasts with conservative forms of Christianity outside the Western world and outside the reach of Enlightenment philosophy and modernism, mostly within Eastern Christianity.
The Roman Catholic Church in particular has a long tradition of controversy regarding questions of religious liberalism. Cardinal John Henry Newman —for example, was seen[ by whom? Lewis voiced a similar view in the 20th century, arguing that "theology of the liberal type" amounted to a complete re-invention of Christianity and a rejection of Christianity as understood by its own founders.
This resulted in the creation of various non-Orthodox denominations, from the moderately liberal Conservative Judaism to very liberal Reform Judaism. The moderate wing of Modern Orthodox Judaismespecially Open Orthodoxyespouses a similar approach.
While Christianity and Judaism in the Western world have had to deal with modernity since its emergence in the 18th century—or even since the Renaissance and its consequences of Reformation and Counter-Reformation  — Islam along with Jewish and Christian traditions in the Middle East was not immediately affected by modernity and Enlightenment philosophy.
Examples of liberal movements within Islam are Progressive British Muslims formed following the London terrorist attacksdefunct byBritish Muslims for Secular Democracy formedor Muslims for Progressive Values formed Thus Hindu reform movements emerged in British India in the 19th century.
Buddhist modernism or "New Buddhism" arose in its Japanese form as a reaction to the Meiji Restorationand was again transformed outside of Japan in the 20th century, notably giving rise to modern Zen Buddhism. Unitarian Universalism The term liberal religion has been used by Unitarian Christians  and by Unitarian Universalists  to refer to their own brand of religious liberalism, although the term has also been used by non-Unitarians.Liberal states invade weak non-liberal states and display striking distrust in dealings with powerful non-liberal states.
Kant’s theory of liberal internationalism helps us understand these two legacies. In international relations theory you can also find neoliberal institutionalism, liberal internationalism or embedded liberalism, while no doubt additional liberalisms can be found in other academic subjects.
Clearly this all amounts to an incomprehensible liberal mess, which needs to be sorted out. “Suicide of the West,” subtitled “An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism,” is a classic work of political science, now fifty years old. Jan 18, · 5) Emerging Areas for Liberal Internationalism: Global Climate Change.
When it comes to foreign affairs, the next four years will not just be about trade, foreign aid, immigration, and the role of the U.S.
Key . Liberal internationalism enshrines the norms of sovereignty and self-determination, for example, but it also has provided the rationale for imperialism, military interventionism, and postwar European efforts to transcend the sovereign state.
May 15, · Matt Yglesias argues that Democrats need to embrace liberal internationalism wholeheartedly. Anne-Marie Slaughter, David Frum, Justin Logan, Derek Chollet, and David Rieff respond.