HIV or human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic condition that requires daily medication.
Pentamidine isetionate Pentacarinat Pentamidine isetionate Pentacarinat Pentamidine isetionate Pentacarinat is an approved anti-fungal and anti-protozoal drug used for the treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia PCP. It can be administered by either intravenous or intramuscular injection, or converted into a mist by a machine called a nebuliser then inhaled into the lungs.
Intravenous pentamidine is the standard treatment for PCP. However, daily use of inhaled pentamidine can also be used to treat PCP. Aerosolised pentamidine is well tolerated, for years if necessary, but some people may experience coughs and spasm of the lungs.
In people unable to tolerate co-trimoxazole, aerosolised pentamidine has been found as effective as atovaquone Wellvone in preventing PCP, and is associated with fewer side-effects. There is also a risk that long-term aerosolised pentamidine can affect blood sugar and insulin levels, and may cause diabetes, although evidence is inconclusive.
However, intravenous pentamidine may be useful in treating and preventing relapses of cutaneous leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients. Pentamidine for intravenous or intramuscular use is marketed under the tradename Pentam. For aerosolised use, it is marketed as NebuPent.
References Obaji J et al. The pulmonary effects of long-term exposure to aerosol pentamidine: High incidence of bronchospasm with regular administration of aerosolized pentamidine.
Bronchodilator pre-treatment improves aerosol deposition uniformity in HIV-positive patients who cough while inhaling aerosolized pentamidine. Ann Intern Med Effect of aerosolized pentamidine prophylaxis on the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
Am Rev Respir Dis Atypical Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after inhaled pentamidine prophylaxis. Am J Roentgenol Extrapulmonary Pneumocystis carinii infection.
Rev Infect Dis Atovaquone suspension compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prevention of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects intolerant of trimethoprim or sulfonamides. J Infect Dis Regional deposition of aerosolised pentamidine: Ann Int Med Does inhalation of pentamidine in the supine position increase deposition in the upper part of the lung?
A prospective study of the effect of I. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during intravenous pentamidine therapy in HIV-infected patients. Effects of aerosolized pentamidine on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in HIV-positive patients: Pentamidine isethionate as treatment and secondary prophylaxis for disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis during HIV infection:Nuclear pore functions are essential for T cell survival Study reveals an unexpected regulatory role for Nup in T cell homeostasis Date: May 7, Disruption of Gut Homeostasis by Opioids in the Early Stages of HIV Infection.
Authors. Sindberg, Gregory. hiv, aids, hyperactivity, kidney stones, magnesium deficiency, menopause, nutritional, migraine, mitral valve prolapse, multiple sclerosis, nystagmus, obesity.
Abstract. In contrast to HIV-infected humans, naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) very rarely progress to AIDS. Although the mechanisms underlying this disease resistance are unknown, a consistent feature of natural SIV infection is the absence of the generalized immune activation associated with HIV infection.
Further studies also demonstrate that opioid addiction is associated with faster progression to AIDS in patients. Recently, it was revealed that disruption of gut homeostasis and subsequent microbial translocation play important roles in pathological activation of the immune system during HIV infection and contributes to accelerated disease.
RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia Rudi Wisaksana1,2*, Rachmat Sumantri1, Agnes R Indrati2,3, Aleta Zwitser4, Hadi Jusuf1, Quirijn de Mast4, Reinout van Crevel2,4 and Andre van der Ven4 Abstract.