Background[ edit ] The philosophers who are especially pertinent to the development of existential psychotherapy are those whose works were directly aimed at making sense of human existence.
Existentialism, true to its roots in Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, was oriented toward two major themes: Thus, its chief theoretical energies were devoted to ontology and decision. Nature of existentialist thought and manner According to existentialism: With respect to the first point, that existence is particular, existentialism is opposed to any doctrine that views human beings as the manifestation of an absolute or of an infinite substance.
It is thus opposed to most forms of idealismsuch as those that stress ConsciousnessSpirit, Reason, Idea, or Oversoul. Second, it is opposed to any doctrine that sees in human beings some given and complete reality that must be resolved into its elements in order to be known or contemplated.
It is thus opposed to any form of objectivism or scientismsince those approaches stress the crass reality of external An analysis of the existenialism a teaching philosophie. Third, existentialism is opposed to any form of necessitarianism; for existence is constituted by possibilities from among which the individual may choose and through which he can project himself.
And, finally, with respect to the fourth point, existentialism is opposed to any solipsism holding that I alone exist or any epistemological idealism holding that the objects of knowledge are mentalbecause existence, which is the relationship with other beings, always extends beyond itself, toward the being of those entities; it is, so to speak, transcendence.
Starting from such bases, existentialism can take diverse and contrasting directions.
It can insist on the transcendence of Being with respect to existence, and, by holding that transcendence to be the origin or foundation of existence, it can thus assume a theistic form. On the other hand, it can hold that human existence, posing itself as a problem, projects itself with absolute freedom, creating itself by itself, thus assuming to itself the function of God.
As such, existentialism presents itself as a radical atheism. Or it may insist on the finitude of human existence—i.
As such, existentialism presents itself as a humanism. From on, with the diffusion of existentialism through continental Europe, its directions developed in keeping with the diversity of the interests to which they were subject: That diversity was rooted, at least in part, in the diversity of sources on which existentialism draws.
One such source is the subjectivism of the 4th—5th-century theologian St. Augustinewho exhorted others not to go outside themselves in the quest for truthfor it is within them that truth abides.
Still another source is the nihilism of the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevskywho, in his novels, presented human beings as continually defeated as a result of their choices and as continually placed before the insoluble enigma of themselves. As a consequence of the diversity of such sources, existentialist doctrines focus on several aspects of existence.
They focus, first, on the problematic character of the human situation, through which the individual is continually confronted with diverse possibilities or alternativesamong which he may choose and on the basis of which he can project his life.
Third, the doctrines focus on the intersubjectivity that is inherent in existence and is understood either as a personal relationship between two individuals, I and thousuch that the thou may be another person or God, or as an impersonal relationship between the anonymous mass and the individual self deprived of any authentic communication with others.
Fourth, existentialism focuses on ontologyon some doctrine of the general meaning of Being, which can be approached in any of a number of ways: There is, in the fifth place, the therapeutic value of existential analysis that permits, on the one hand, the liberating of human existence from the beguilements or debasements to which it is subject in daily life and, on the other, the directing of human existence toward its authenticity—i.
The various forms of existentialism may also be distinguished on the basis of language, which is an indication of the cultural traditions to which they belong and which often explains the differences in terminology among various authors.
The linguistic differences, however, are not decisive for a determination of philosophical affinities. Historical survey of existentialism Many of the theses that existentialists defend or illustrate in their analyses are drawn from the wider philosophical tradition.
But our whole groundwork cracks, and the earth opens to abysses. In early 19th-century French philosophyit was defended by a reformed ideologue of the French RevolutionMarie Maine de Biranwho wrote: I was already led by instinct to look within myself in order to know how it was possible that I could be alive and be myself.
The theme of the irreducibility of existence to reasoncommon to many existentialists, was also defended by the German idealist F. Understanding, according to Dilthey, consists in the reliving and reproducing of the experience of others. Hence, it is also a feeling together with others and a sympathetic participation in their emotions.
Understanding, therefore, accomplishes a unity between the knowing object and the object known. Immediate background and founders The theses of existentialism found a particular relevance during World War IIwhen Europe found itself threatened alternately by material and spiritual destruction.
Under those circumstances of uncertainty, the optimism of Romantic inspiration, by which the destiny of humankind is infallibly guaranteed by an infinite force such as Reason, the Absolute, or Mind and propelled by it toward an ineluctable progress, appeared to be untenable.
The negative aspects of existence, such as pain, frustration, sickness, and death—which 19th-century optimism refused to take seriously because they do not touch the infinite principle that those optimists believed to be manifest in humans—became for existentialism the essential features of human reality.
The thinkers who, by virtue of the negative character of their philosophy, constituted the exception to 19th-century Romanticism thus became the acknowledged masters of the existentialists.
Against Hegelian necessitarianism, Kierkegaard interpreted existence in terms of possibility: Emergence as a movement Modern existentialism reproduced such ideas and combined them in more or less coherent ways.
Human existence is, for all the forms of existentialism, the projection of the future on the basis of the possibilities that constitute it. For others such as Sartrethe possibilities that are offered to existential choice are infinite and equivalent, such that the choice between them is indifferent; and for still others Abbagnano and Merleau-Pontythe existential possibilities are limited by the situation, but they neither determine the choice nor render it indifferent.
The issue is one of individuating, in every concrete situation and by means of a specific inquiry, the real possibilities offered to humans.Existentialism has become for many people an attractive and dynamic force in education.
Despite the diversity which may be found among existential writers there are common existential principles which can be identified which have special relevance for those who hope to arrive at a more effective teaching approach through the medium of existentialism.
curriculum. Existential education wants to inquiry into life’s difficulties, tensions, and ambiguities. • Existential philosophy offers the possibility to overcome the “polarity” that exists between the subjective/objective, internal/external, either/or rationale for programmatic curriculum making (Detmer, ).
Existentialism and Classroom Practice primary and secondary sources related to educational philosophy of existentialism were evaluated after detailed analysis.
The general philosophical tools used for the study are induction, deduction, dialectical analysis and synthesis. Existentialism – A Definition Existentialism in the broader sense is a 20th century philosophy that is centered upon the analysis of existence and of the way humans find themselves existing in the world.
detriment of humanistic education that captures the existential situation that bedevils man, some of which leads to suicide, terrorism, pornography, robbery, prostitution, drugs and so on as a consequence.